Effect of the Use of Modern Technologies on Posture and Static Endurance of Trunk Muscles in Adolescents
Background. It is observed that rapidly evolving and easily accessible modern technology takes much time from daily lives of children and adolescents (Paavonen et al., 2010). Smartphones, tablets and computers – all portable and stationary, have become an integral part of learning and leisure among young people (Young et al., 2012; Korpinen et al., 2013). There has also been an increase in posture disorders in children and adolescents, and frequent complaints of various types of pain in the back, especially in the neck and lower back (Brink et al., 2013; Bimboga, Korhan, 2014).
The aim was to determine the relationship among the duration of use of modern technologies, adolescents’ posture and static endurance of trunk muscles.
Methods. The study included 84 subjects (60 girls, 24 boys). The subjects’ posture was evaluated using visual posture evaluation chart. Information on the frequency and duration of the use of modern technologies was collected by questionnaire. Static endurance of trunk muscles was evaluated using McGill’s (2002) methodology.
Results. 90% of subjects experienced discomfort in the back. All subjects used modern technology devices (75% computers, 10% tablets, 95% smartphones); 10% of subjects had excellent posture (45–50 points), 35% – good posture (44–45 points) and 55% of subjects had satisfactory posture (39–30 points). The average posture score of those who did not use the computer was 40.2 points, and those who spent 4 hours or more a day using devices – 43 points, and those who did not use the tablet – 40 points; those who used the tablet for 1–2 hours a day – 39 points. Subjects who used smartphones only for calls average posture score was 42 points, those who used 4 hours or more a day – 38.7 points. A positive moderate significant correlation was found between posture and endurance of lateral trunk muscles (r = 0.33; r = 0.41). A positive weak correlation was found between time spent at the computer and static endurance of trunk muscles (r = 0.24). A negative weak correlation was found between time spent using the tablet and static endurance of trunk muscles (r = –0.29).
Conclusions. Visual posture evaluation revealed that 10% of subjects had excellent posture, 35% – good, 55% – satisfactory. There was a positive moderate significant relationship between adolescents’ posture and endurance of trunk muscles. Modern technological devices were daily used by 100% of subjects, and the average time was four hours a day. There were significant but weak to moderate relationships among the duration of use of modern technologies, the endurance of trunk muscles and subjects’ posture.
Keywords: modern technologies, posture, static endurance.
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