Effect of the Use of Modern Technologies on Posture and Static Trunk Muscle Endurance in Adolescents
Background. It is observed that rapidly evolving and easily accessible modern technology takes much time from daily lives of children and adolescents (Paavonen et al., 2010). Smartphones, tablets and computers – all portable and stationary, have become an integral part of learning and leisure among young people (Young et al., 2012; Korpinen et al., 2013). There has also been an increase in posture disorders in children and adolescents, and frequent complaints of various types of pain in the back, especially in the neck and lower back (Brink et al., 2013; Bimboga, Korhan, 2014).
Purpose. Establish links between time of use of modern technologies and adolescents’ posture and static muscle endurance.
Methods. The study included 84 subjects (60 girls, 24 boys). The subjects’ posture was evaluated using W. W. K. Hoeger (1987) (Arcinavičius et al., 2004) visual posture assessment questionnaire, the technology frequency, duration, sense in the back and physical activity questionnaire and McGill’s (2002) methodology for the assessment of static muscle endurance.
Results. Even 90% of subjects experienced discomfort in the back (13% of the whole back, 9% in the neck, 35% in the upper back, 43% in the lower back). All subjects used modern technology devices (75% computer, 10% tablet, 95% phone); 10% of subjects had excellent posture (45–50 points), 35% – good posture (44–45 points) and 55% of subjects had satisfactory posture (39–30). The average posture point of those who did not use the computer was 40.2 points, and of those who spent 4 hours or more – 43, of those who did not use the tablet – 40, of those who used the tablet for 1–2 hours – 39. Subjects who did not use the phone more than when calling – 42 points, those who used 4 hours or more – 38.7 points. When assessing the posture of school children and the static endurance of the torso muscles, a positive, moderate, significant correlation between posture and dorsal and right-side static trunk muscles endurance (r = 0.33; r = 0.41) was found, time spent at the computer and static trunk muscle endurance – weak and moderate positive correlations, and a significant relationship with left-sided static trunk muscles endurance (r = 0.24). When assessing the time spent using the tablet and static endurance of the torso muscles, we found negative, weak correlation relationships, and significant relationship with abdominal muscle static endurance (r = –0.29). After assessing the time used with phone, posture and endurance, all significant, negative and weak/moderate correlations were identified.
Conclusions. Even 10% of subjects had excellent posture, 35% – good, 55% – satisfactory. There was a direct, moderate significant relationship between adolescent posture and torso muscle static endurance. Modern technology was used by 100% of subjects daily, and the average time was four hours. There awere significant, weak and moderate relationships between the time of using modern technologies, the endurance and posture of the static muscles of the trunk.
Keywords: modern technology, adolescent posture, static muscles.
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