Relationship between Crawling Function in Infancy and Motor Skills, Cognitive Functions in 4 to 6-Year-Old Children
Background. The developmental stage of crawling in infancy facilitated the development of body position perception and of motor skills later in life, as well as memory development, improved cognitive and social development (Xiong et al., 2018).
Aim. To determine relationship between children’s motor skills and cognitive functions with motor skills crawling function.
Material and methods. 22 healthy subjects (aged 4–6 years old) were divided into two groups based on the answers of a survey provided by parents: those who did not skip and skipped crawling stage in infancy. All subjects were assessed for trunk functional stability, balance, coordination (multi–directional jumping, ball catching and kicking), and cognitive function.
Results. Statistically significant difference was observed with 85% of crawlers having a functionally unstable trunk, thus in the group of non-crawlers – 78% have a functionally unstable trunk. Subjects who did not skip the crawling stage in infancy tried to maintain the balance 3 times on average, those who did not crawl – 10 times on average (p <0,05). Assessing the performance of coordination skills tasks, study found that the coordination of both crawler and non–crawler group jumping in different directions and throwing the ball was assessed as good, however kicking of the ball was evaluated as average. Crawler (89%) and non–crawler (78%) ability to focus attention rated as very good and good accordingly. In group of infants who did not miss crawling stage ball catching is directly and moderately strongly coherent to the task of kicking the ball (r = 0,556; p = 0,048).
Conclusions. Subjects who skipped the crawling stage stood up earlier. Children who did not skip the crawling stage in infancy showed a better balance, however coordination skills, trunk functional stability and ability to concentrate attention did not differ from children who missed crawl stage in infancy.
Key words: children's motor skills, cognitive functions, crawling.
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