Drive for Muscularity in Lithuanian Male Students: Psychometrics and Associated Characteristics

Miglė Bacevičienė, Žavinta Titenytė, Vaiva Balčiūnienė, Rasa Jankauskienė


Background. The drive for muscularity in men is associated with a negative body image, psychosocial, and physiological outcomes. The aim of the present study was to test the psychometric properties of the Lithuanian version of the Drive for Muscularity Scale (DMS-LT) and associated characteristics in the sample of young adults (men).

Methods. The sample consisted of 763 male students. The ages ranged from 18 to 32 years, with a mean age of 20.4 (SD = 3.1). Participants completed the Lithuanian translation of DMS-LT alongside with the measures of disordered eating, sociocultural attitudes towards appearance questionnaire, body mass index, self-esteem, and participation in sports.

Results. The instrument showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = .92) and test-retest reliability (ICC = .87). The two-dimensional factor structure of the proposed original scale was not confirmed. DMS-LT was negatively correlated with self-esteem. Positive associations were observed between DMS-LT, muscular/athletic body ideal internalization, and disordered eating. Drive for muscularity attitudes and behaviors were more expressed in male students attending sports clubs.

Conclusions. The results of the present study support the psychometric properties of the DMS-LT and its’ use in Lithuanian samples of young men. The instrument might also be used in clinical practice. It is important to develop prevention programs that decrease body image concerns and prevent disordered eating in young men.

 Keywords: drive for muscularity, body image, psychometric properties of the scale, students.

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