Relationship between 12–16-Year-Old Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Self-Confidence and Bullying
Research background and hypothesis. Previous research has proved that children engaged in sports easier
integrate into the society and their psychological well-being is much higher, sports activities can help them resist to
the harmful influence of their peers and prevent them from engaging into delinquent behavior. However, there still
is a lack of a studies providing evidence about factors that determine the expression of compulsion. Hypothesis: The
level of self-esteem and self-confidence of adolescent athletes influences the occurrence of bullying and the initiation
Research aim was to disclose the relationship between the level of adolescent athletes’ self-esteem, self-
confidence and the occurrence of bullying.
Research methods. The study applied I. Shostrom’s modified self-esteem scale questionnaire and the adapted
Bullying Scale for Schoolchildren.
Research results. Results showed a weak correlation between bullying and self-esteem levels (
p > 0.05). We found a weak adverse relationship between initiating bullying and self-assessment levels (
p > 0.05), weak adverse correlation between experienced bullying and self-confidence levels (
= –0.15; p > 0.05)
and a weak linear relationship between initiating bullying and self-confidence (
= 0.20; p > 0.05).
Discussion and conclusions. Contrary to what we expected, we observed that athlete adolescents with the high
levels of self-esteem suffered from bullying sometimes and often. Research findings suggest that adolescents who
tend to initiate bullying demonstrated moderate and low levels of self-esteem. Most of athlete adolescents admitted
that that did not initiate bullying or if they did, that was done only occasionally. It was found that adolescents with
high and moderate self-confidence levels experienced bullying occasionally or not at all. Some athletes with low
self-confidence levels professed that they suffered from bullying more often, and they also admitted that they often
initiated bullying themselves. In our research we were unable failed to provide evidence which would prove that
sports activities impacted or influenced adolescents’ bullying initiatives or experiences; therefore further research
is needed to determine whether self-esteem and other internal personality qualities could affect the expression of
bullying among non-athlete adolescents.
Keywords: aggression, adolescents’ self- assessment, self-confidence.
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