The Management of Turf Toe – a Systematic Review
Background. Turf toe is used to describe an injury occurring at the plantar aspect of the metatarsophalangealsesamoid complex of the hallux. Typically seen in athletes, it occurs due to hyperdorsiﬂexion and axial loading of the hallux metatarsophalangeal joint with the foot fxed in equinus. The injury causes pain and joint instability, missed athletic activity and potentially end careers. Turf toe can be managed conservatively or operatively, with controversy regarding the indications for operative intervention. This study aims to conduct a systematic review to determine whether and in what circumstances operative intervention is superior to conservative management of turf toe in adults. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was performed using PubMed, Embase, Cochrane and Scopus databases. The search terms used were “turf toe”, “frst metatarsophalangeal joint injury”, “conservative”, “nonoperative”, and “operative”. All articles published in English reporting on the management of turf toe were reviewed. The primary outcome measure was the time to return to pre-injury activity with the secondary outcome of the time to symptom resolution. Results. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three patients were successfully managed conservatively returning to athletic activity, on average at 12 weeks. Seventeen patients underwent surgical intervention with an average return to athletic activity at 18 weeks. Conclusion. Operative intervention was shown to give a successful outcome in patients with grade three turf toe injuries or those who have failed conservative management. However, there is insufcient evidence to determine
whether operative intervention is superior to conservative management.
Keywords: turf toe, frst metatarsophalangeal joint injury, conservative, nonoperative, and operative.
How to Cite
Each Article is an original contribution and not plagiarized/copied from any source/individual. It does not contravene on the rights of others and does not contain any libellous or unlawful statements and all references have been duly acknowledged at the appropriate places.
The article submitted only to Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Science, and it has not been previously published or submitted elsewhere for publication in a copyrighted publication.
The Author hereby authorizes the journal to edit, modify and make changes in the Articles/Research paper to make it suitable for publication in Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Science.
The Author hereby assigns all the copyright relating to the said Article/Research Paper to Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Science.
The Author has not assigned any kind of rights to the above said Article/Research Paper to any other person/Institute/Publication.
The Author agrees to indemnify Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Science against any claim legal and/or otherwise, action alleging facts which if true, constitute a beach of any of the foregoing warranties.