Interdependence-Based Model of Consistency among Competition, Cooperation and Collaboration


  • Audrius Armas
  • Šarūnas Šniras



Research background and hypothesis. Social interdependence is evident in everyday human life situations;
sports industry is based on it as well. Athletes often compete for higher achievements; however, a possibility for
cooperation can be envisioned in competitions as well. The research problem is as follows: is it possible to harmonize
social interrelations which manifest in competition, cooperation and collaboration at the same time, and how this
consistency can be achieved.  
The research aim was to elaborate the conceptual model of consistency among competition, cooperation and
collaboration based on the premise of social interdependence.
Research methods were theoretical analysis and synthesis. The results of theoretical analysis were generalized
and incorporated into the conceptual model.
Discussion and conclusions. Scientific literature suggested a few insights. First, social interaction may occur at
two levels: intra-group (group level) and inter-group (community level). Second, the nature of social interdependence
depends on the level of goals being achieved; three levels of goals can be distinguished: individual goals, group
goals, and community goals. Third, based on the type of the interaction and the level of goals, individuals tend
to engage into a particular form of interrelation: competition, cooperation, or collaboration; moreover, the form
of interdependence is not restricted – a combination of a few (or even all) forms is possible. Based on scientific
literature, an implication can be made that interrelation among competition, cooperation, or collaboration can result
in coopetition as a higher form of interdependence.

Keywords: coopetition, social interaction, social interrelations.


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How to Cite

Armas, A., & Šniras, Šarūnas. (2018). Interdependence-Based Model of Consistency among Competition, Cooperation and Collaboration. Baltic Journal of Sport and Health Sciences, 1(88).



Social Sciences in Sport