The Eﬀect of Sports Activities on The Self-Esteem of Socially Excluded Men
Background. Self-esteem is one characteristic of personality, a construct of self-confidence, self-respect, and harmonious interaction with oneself (Breslin, Leavey, 2019). Research devoted to the analysis of men's self-esteem reveals that a positive self-evaluation of men requires an image of a physically active man, which the man could compare with other men who demonstrate physical strength (Conzelmann, Schmidt, 2019). A man's physical self-perception is part of the assessment of a physically healthy and strong person and an aspect that ensures his sociality (Crawford, 2017). Scientific research establishes clear links between a man's physical attractiveness (Anderson-Butcher, 2019), sociability and self-esteem (Anderson, White, 2017). Men who systematically engage in active physical activity are physically healthier and more attractive (Burrmann, 2018). They are also emotionally more stable, their emotional self-control is more focused and their self-confidence is higher (El Ghali, 2018).
Aim of the research. To reveal the effect of sports activities on the self-esteem of men experiencing social exclusion.
Methods. To determine men's self-esteem changes The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale was chosen, and the Data were processed using SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Science), version 22.0.
Results. A study in which men experiencing social exclusion participated in independent and team sports activities for half a year revealed a positive change in their self-esteem. When analyzing the changes in men's self-esteem before and after the activities, the distance between the estimates of the Rosenberg test before the experiment and 6 months after it ended is 1 standard deviation on the z-scale of the standard normal distribution. According to Cohen's concept of effective size, such a difference between standardized means can be considered as large. Despite the relatively small sample (N=30), the test met the very strict condition of statistical reliability (p≤0.001).
Conclusion. The study revealed that when socially excluded men were included in sports activities held for half a year, their self-esteem changed from 15 points (low self-esteem) to 25-30 points (high self-esteem).
Keywords: social exclusion, self-esteem, sports activities
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